Head of a New Humanity
To understand God’s plan for the fullness of time (unity) requires an understanding of this new human union inaugurated in Christ, which requires an underatanind of its head Christ. This new humanity like the old humanity is defined by its head. It is Christ’s image that this new humanity bears (not Adam’s).

It must be first acknowledged that Adam and Jesus are not head of the same race. Adam was the first born in creation and all who are human share in his flesh, Jesus is the first born of the new creation (resurrected), so all who are Christian share in his spirit. A clear contrast between Adam and Jesus Christ is given is Romans 5:12-21.

One Man
In Romans 5 the phrase “one man” is used to describe the status that both Adam and Jesus have as the heads of their respective races (their race is one in them). It states that through a single act both men determined the course of their entire race. The rebellious act of Adam bringing death “once for all” and the righteous act of Jesus Christ giving bringing life “once for all”.

It the rebellious act of the “one man” Adam, sin and rebellion was introduced into the world. As discussed, the rebellion of Adam, in eating of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, constituted a rebellion against and rejection of God as creator and judge (head of all things). All who share in Adam’s flesh, Adamkind, share in his corrupt flesh. Therefore all who are born into Adam’s flesh are born into disunity and by their own actions (sin) are condemned to death.

When the law was given to Moses, mankind had been in rebellion and disunity since Adam. It is not by the law that humanity became sinners, the corruption of sin was already in the flesh of Adam when Moses was still in Adam’s flesh. Instead the law exposed mankind for what it really is, rebels, usurpers, deserters and covenant breakers.

Adam’s sin was different to the sins committed by the rest of his race because as head his sin affected the entire race (which was still in his flesh). Therefore in corrupting himself he forever tainted all who would come from him. He is the type of the one to come, Christ.

Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned—for sin indeed was in the world before the law was given, but sin is not counted where there is no law. Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come.
(Romans 5:12-14 ESV)

Jesus Christ was born into the flesh of Adam, so that through his life, death, resurrection, etc he could pay the price for our rebellion in his flesh and restore the place of the union of humanity in the union of all things under God. as the new (better) Adam. So that whoever believes in him is reborn into his spirit partaking in his union (this is the free gift of Christ).

The righteous act of Jesus Christ is not like the sin of Adam because they have fundamentally different results. The sin of Adam brought judgement and condemnation for all mankind. The righteous act of Christ not only removed the judgement and condemnation of Adam’s flesh but brought those who trusted in him into a renewed union with one another and God. Because of Adam death had dominion over all born into his flesh and yet in Christ those who believe in him are united in his spirit and take their rightful place under God ruling in life.

But the free gift is not like the trespass. For if many died through one man’s trespass, much more have the grace of God and the free gift by the grace of that one man Jesus Christ abounded for many. And the free gift is not like the result of that one man’s sin. For the judgment following one trespass brought condemnation, but the free gift following many trespasses brought justification. For if, because of one man’s trespass, death reigned through that one man, much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and the free gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man Jesus Christ.
(Romans 5:15-17 ESV)

Headship is central to understanding biblical unity. To understand this new human union requires knowing Christ. It is important to note that the headship of Adam and Christ have important implications for the physical image and nature of the members of their respective races.

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